One of the more popular architectural sub courses is town and city planning, which takes students through historical cities that were planned, up to present day metropolises like New York. Where a community grows organically from a village to a city, the networks and infrastructure follow suit, developing gradually and somehow arranging themselves according to the flow of human capital. However, when a town or a city is planned from scratch, all of the different elements that make up an advanced community have to be thought of and planned for prior to occupation. Here are some of the elements that have to be considered:
Road Network and Transportation
Depending on the location of your town or city, the primary means of public transportation will differ. For example, Hiroshima in Japan uses tram cars and bicycles more than cars, while Venice in Italy is famous for its waterways. Once you decide on the primary mode of public transportation, it will help you decide on the road network. For example, a city designed for only bicycles and walking will need wider pavements and smaller roads, while a city with more privately owned vehicles than public transport like Los Angeles will require roads with multiple lanes each way.
Sanitation and Utility Systems
Gone are the days that each house provided for itself like septic tank. Ever since civilization transitioned from a feudal society to a state governed country, sanitation and utilities have been the purview of the government. Therefore, it is essential that you overlay plans for waste water treatment systems, gas lines, fresh water pipes and underground repair conduits over the road network planned previously.
This will allow you to see whether any networks overlap where inappropriate. For instance, pipes carrying sewage to waste water treatment systems cannot crisscross closely with pipes carrying fresh water as there is a risk of contamination. Visit this link http://www.ri-industries.com.au/residential/ri-treat-waste-water-treatment-system/ for more details regarding the waste water treatment systems.
Population Crowding and Entertainment
When planning residential areas in a city, make sure that there is always more space than is required because population growth occurs rapidly and overcrowding can happen easily. Residential also have to be located (ideally) separate from industrial or business sections of a city to enable a comfortable home life. However this means that transportation networks have to be top quality to have a smooth commute every morning and evening. Also plan areas and buildings for entertainment and leisure such as parks, jogging paths, theatres etc. that is an essential part of city life and helps fill out a residential area. The best progression of areas would be for leisure and entertainment to be located in the middle of residential and commercial/ business areas.